A stamp issued September 6, 1983 in the uni soviet Union, commemorating al-Khwārizmī"s (approximate) 1200th anniversary.

Anda sedang menonton: Muhammad bin musa al-khawarizmi


Bornc. 780Diedc. 850

Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī (Arabic: محمد بن موسى الخوارزمي) was a Persian mathematician, astronomer, astrologer and geographer. He was born roughly 780 in Khwārizm (now Khiva, Uzbekistan) and also died approximately 850. That worked most of his life as a scholar in the house of Wisdom in Baghdad.

His Algebra to be the very first book top top the methodical solution that linear and quadratic equations. In turn he is thought about to be the dad of algebra,<1> a title he shares with Diophantus. Latin translations that his Arithmetic, top top the Indian numerals, presented the decimal positional number system come the Western dunia in the twelfth century.<2> that revised and also updated Ptolemy"s Geography as well as writing several works on astronomy and also astrology.


Contents


2 Contributions
His contribute not only made a great kerusakan on mathematics, but on language as well. Words algebra is acquired from al-jabr, one of the 2 operations tangan kedua to settle quadratic equations, as described in his book. The native algorism and algorithm stem indigenous algoritmi, the Latinization of his name.<3> His surname is also the asal of the Spanish indigenous guarismo<4> and also of the Portuguese indigenous algarismo, both definition "digit."

Biography

Few details about al-Khwārizmī"s life room known; it is not even specific exactly whereby he to be born. His name cepat he could have come indigenous Khwarizm (Khiva) in the Khorasan district of the Abbasid kerajaan (now Xorazm district of Uzbekistan).

His kunya is given as either Abū ʿAbd Allāh (Arabic: أبو عبد الله) or Abū Jaʿfar.<5>

With his sepenuhnya name of Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, chroniclers are able to extract the he to be the son of Moses, the father of Ja’far. One of two people he or his ancestors come from Khiva (then Khwarazm), which is a city south of the Aral Sea in main Asia. The this city lies between the Tigris and also Euphrates Rivers remains dibawah discussion.

The chronicler al-Tabari provided his name as Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwārizmī al-Majousi al-Katarbali (Arabic: محمد بن موسى الخوارزميّ المجوسيّ القطربّليّ). The epithet al-Qutrubbulli menunjukkan he could instead have actually came native Qutrubbull, a small kota near Baghdad. About al-Khwārizmī"s religion, Toomer writes:

Another epithet offered to that by al-Ṭabarī, "al-Majūsī," would certainly seem to suggest that he was an adherent the the old Zoroastrian religion. This would certainly still have actually been mungkin at that time because that a guy of Iranian origin, however the pious preface come al-Khwārizmī"s Algebra reflects that he to be an orthodox Muslim, so al-Ṭabarī"s epithet bisa mean no more than the his forebears, and also perhaps he in his youth, had been a Zoroastrian.<6>

Al-Khwārizmī accomplished paling of his occupational in the period between 813 and also 833. ~ the islam conquest that Persia, Baghdad ended up being the centre of scientific studies and also trade, and many merchants and also scientists, indigenous as much as China and also India, travel to this city—and apparently, for this reason did Al-Khwārizmī. He worked in Baghdad as a scholar in ~ the home of Wisdom ditemukan by Caliph al-Maʾmūn, whereby he studied the sciences and mathematics, which contained the translate into of Greek and also Sanskrit scientific manuscripts.

In scientists of The old World, margaret J. Anderson states:

When al-Khwarizmi lived in Baghdad the was quite a new city, however its location at the meeting place the trade courses from India, Persia, and ports on the Mediterranean Sea had actually caused the to grow rapidly. Native 813 to 823, Baghdad to be ruled through the caliph (spiritual and political leader) al-Ma’mun. The caliph, who himself was an enthusiastic scholar and philosopher, soon turned the city into an important intellectual center. He ditemukan the residence of Wisdom and also ordered his scholars to translate the classical Greek texts into Arabic. Duplicates of these publications ended increase in Muslim centers of finding out in spanyol and Sicily. Later, they were translated right into Latin and also passed on to universities throughout Europe.

Contributions


*

His utama contributions come mathematics, astronomy, astrology, geography and cartography noted foundations because that later and also even more widespread creation in Algebra, trigonometry, and his other locations of interest. His systematic and also logical approach to addressing linear and quadratic equations gave shape to the technique of Algebra, a word the is acquired from the surname of his 830 book on the subject, al-Kitab al-mukhtasar fi hisab al-jabr wa"l-muqabala (Arabic الكتاب المختصر في حساب الجبر والمقابلة) or: "The Compendious publication on calculate by Completion and Balancing." The book was very first translated into Latin in the twelfth century.

His book On the Calculation through Hindu Numerals tertulis about 825, to be principally responsible because that the diffusion of the Indian system of numeration in the Middle-East and kemudian Europe. This publication was juga translated into Latin in the twelfth century, together Algoritmi de numero Indorum. It was from the surname of the author, rendered in Latin together algoritmi, the originated the term algorithm.

Some the al-Khwarizmi’s contributions were based on earlier Persian and also Babylonian Astronomy, Indian numbers, and also Greek sources.

Al-Khwārizmī systematized and also corrected Ptolemy"s data in location with regards to Africa and also the tengah East. Another kepala book to be his Kitab surat al-ard ("The image of the Earth"; interpreted as Geography), which presented the coordinates of localities in the known world based, ultimately, on itu in the location of Ptolemy yet with boosted values for the size of the Mediterranean Sea and the location of urban in Asia and Africa.

He tambahan assisted in the building and construction of a world map because that the caliph al-Ma"mun and also participated in a task to identify the one of the Earth, supervising the occupational of 70 geographers to membuat the map the the then "known world".

When his job-related was copied and also transferred to eropa through Latin translations, it had a profound kerusakan on the development of simple mathematics in Europe. He tambahan wrote on mechanical gadgets like the astrolabe and sundial.

Algebra

al-Kitāb al-mukhtaṣar fī ḥisāb al-jabr wa-l-muqābala (Arabic: الكتاب المختصر في حساب الجبر والمقابلة “The Compendious book on calculation by Completion and Balancing”) is a mathematical book written approximately 830 C.E.

The book is thought about to have identified Algebra. Words Algebra is obtained from the name of one of the basic operasi with equations (al-jabr) explained in this book. The publication was translated in Latin together Liber Algebrae et Almucabala by Robert the Chester (Segovia, 1145)<7> thus "Algebra," and tambahan by Gerard that Cremona. A unique arab copy is kept at oxford and was analyzed in 1831 by F. Rosen. A Latin translate in is preserved is Cambridge.<8>

Al-Khwārizmī"s technique of resolving linear and also quadratic equations functioned by first reducing the equation to one of six standard forms (where b and c are hopeful integers)

squares equal roots (ax2 = bx)squares equal number (ax2 = c)roots equal sourse (bx = c)squares and also roots equal numberi (ax2 + bx = c)squares and number equal root (ax2 + c = bx)roots and numberi equal squares (bx + c = ax2)

by splitting out the coefficient the the square and using the two kerja al-ǧabr (Arabic: الجبر “restoring” or “completion”) and al-muqābala ("balancing"). Al-ǧabr is the process of removing negative units, roots and squares indigenous the equation by adding the same amount to each side. For example, x2 = 40x - 4x2 is diminished to 5x2 = 40x. Al-muqābala is the process of bringing quantities of the same kind to the very same side that the equation. For example, x2+14 = x+5 is diminished to x2+9 = x.

Several authors have published texts dibawah the name of Kitāb al-ǧabr wa-l-muqābala, consisting of Abū Ḥanīfa al-Dīnawarī, Abū Kāmil (Rasāla fi al-ǧabr wa-al-muqābala), Abū Muḥammad al-ʿAdlī, Abū Yūsuf al-Miṣṣīṣī, Ibn Turk, Sind ibn ʿAlī, Sahl ibn Bišr (author uncertain), and also Šarafaddīn al-Ṭūsī.

Arithmetic


*

Al-Khwārizmī"s second utama work was on the subject of arithmetic, which endured in a Latin translation but was lost in the original Arabic. The translate in was paling likely done in the twelfth century by Adelard the Bath, that had juga translated the huge tables in 1126.

The Latin manuscripts room untitled, yet are generally referred to by the first two words through which lock start: Dixit algorizmi ("So said al-Khwārizmī"), or Algoritmi de numero Indorum ("al-Khwārizmī ~ above the Hindu art of Reckoning"), a name provided to the work-related by Baldassarre Boncompagni in 1857. The original Arabic title was maybe Kitāb al-Jamʿ wa-l-tafrīq bi-ḥisāb al-Hind ("The book of addition and Subtraction according to the Hindu Calculation")<9>

Margaret J. Anderson of “Scientists the The ancient World” states, “One of al-Khwarizmi’s large breakthroughs came from examining the job-related of Indian mathematicians. In a publication called addition and individually by the method of calculation of the Hindus, he introduced the idea that zero to the west world. Numerous centuries earlier … unknown Hindu scholar or vendor had wanted to document a sourse from his counting board. He tangan kedua a dot to show a pillar with no beads, and also called the dijebloskan sunya, which method empty. When the idea was embraced by the Arabs, they tangan kedua the price “0” instead of a dijebloskan and called it sifr. This offered us our word cipher. Two hundred and fifty year later, the idea of sifr got to Italy, whereby it was dubbed zenero, which became “zero” in English.”

Geography


*

Al-Khwārizmī"s third utama work is his Kitāb ṣūrat al-Arḍ (Arabic: كتاب صورة الأرض "Book ~ above the figure of the Earth" or "The picture of the Earth" translated as Geography), which was finished in 833. It is a modification and menyelesaikan version that Ptolemy"s Geography, consisting of a perform of 2402 collaborates of cities and other geografi features following a general introduction.<10>

There is just one surviving copy of Kitāb ṣūrat al-Arḍ, i m sorry is preserved at the Strasbourg college Library. A Latin translate into is kept at the Biblioteca Nacional de España in Madrid. The complete title translates as publication of the appearance of the Earth, through its cities, mountains, seas, all the islands and rivers, tertulis by Abu Ja"far Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwārizmī, according to the geographical treatise tertulis by Ptolemy the Claudian.<11>

The publication opens v the perform of latitudes and longitudes, in bespeak of "weather zones," that is come say in blocks of latitudes and, in every weather zone, by stimulate of longitude. As Paul Gallez point out out, this wonderful system enables us come deduce plenty of latitudes and longitudes whereby the only record in ours possession is in such a negative condition regarding make it practically illegible.

Neither the arab copy nor the Latin translation incorporate the map that the dunia itself, however hubert Daunicht to be able to rebuild the lacking map native the list of coordinates. Daunicht check out the latitudes and also longitudes that the coastal points in the manuscript, or deduces them from the context where they were not legible. He transferred the points onto graph paper and connected them with directly lines, obtaining one approximation the the coast as it to be on the initial map. The then melakukan the same for the rivers and also towns.<12>

Astronomy


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Al-Khwārizmī"s Zīj al-sindhind (Arabic: زيج "astronomical tables") is a work-related consisting of about 37 chapters ~ above calendrical and astronomical calculations and 116 tables v calendrical, astronomical and astrological data, and a table of sine values. This is among many arab zijes based on the Indian expensive methods well-known as the sindhind.<13>

The original arab version (written c. 820) is lost, however a version by the Spanish astronomer Maslama al-Majrīṭī (c. 1000) has survived in a Latin translation, maybe by Adelard of bak mandi (January 26, 1126).<14> The four surviving manuscripts the the Latin translate in are kept at the Bibliothèque publique (Chartres), the Bibliothèque Mazarine (Paris), the Bibliotheca Nacional (Madrid) and the Bodleian Library (Oxford).

Jewish calendar

Al-Khwārizmī wrote several various other works including a konsep on the Jewish calendar (Risāla fi istikhrāj taʾrīkh al-yahūd "Extraction that the Jewish Era"). It explains the 19-year intercalation cycle, the rules because that determining on apa day that the mainly the an initial day the the month Tishrī dimaksudkan untuk fall; calculates the interval in between the Jewish era (creation the Adam) and also the Seleucid era; and gives rules because that determining the mean longitude that the sun and the bulan using the Jewish calendar. Similar material is uncovered in the functions of al-Bīrūnī and Maimonides.

Other works

Several arabic manuscripts in Berlin, Istanbul, Taschkent, Cairo and also Paris contain further material that surely or v some probability originates from al-Khwārizmī. The Istanbul manuscript consists of a file on sundials, i beg your pardon is discussed in the Fihirst. Other papers, sebagai as one ~ above the decision of the arah of Mecca, space on the spherical astronomy.

Two messages deserve special interest top top the morning width (Maʿrifat saʿat al-mashriq fī kull balad) and also the determination of the azimuth from a height

He juga wrote two publications on penampilan and building astrolabes. Ibn al-Nadim in his Kitab al-Fihrist (an index of arab books) tambahan mentions Kitāb ar-Ruḵāma(t) (the book on sundials) and Kitab al-Tarikh (the publication of history) yet the two have been lost.

Notes


References

Dunlop, Douglas Morton. "Muhammad ibn-Musa al-Khwarizmi" newspaper of the royal Asiatic society of an excellent Britain & Ireland (1943): 248–250.Hogendijk, jan P. "Al-Khwārizmī"s Table the the "Sine that the Hours" and also the underlying Sine Table" historia Scientiarum 42 (1991): 1–12.Hughes, Barnabas B. "Gererd that Cremona"s translate into of al-Khwārizmī"s al-Jabr: A vital Edition" Mediaeval researches 48 (1986): 211–263.Karpinski, L. C. Robert of Chester"s Latin translate in of the Algebra that Al-Khowarizmi The Macmillan Company, 1915.Kennedy, E.S. A survey of islamic Astronomical Tables. Transactions that the American filosofis Society 46(2), Philadelphia: American filosofis Society, 1956.Kennedy, E.S. "Al-Khwārizmī top top the Jewish Calendar" Scripta Mathematica 27 (1964): 55–59.Mžik, Hanz von. Das Kitāb Ṣūrat al-Arḍ des Abū Ǧa‘far Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Ḫuwārizmī. Leipzig, 1926.Neugebauer, Otto. "The expensive Tables the al-Khwarizmi" Historisk-filosofiske Skrifter 4(2) (1962).Sezgin, Fuat. Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums. Leiden, the Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 1974.Sezgin, Fuat (ed.). Islam Mathematics and also Astronomy. Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der arabisch-islamischen Wissenschaften, 1997-9.Van Dalen, B. Al-Khwarizmi"s expensive Tables Revisited: evaluation of the Equation the Time.

External links

All links retrieved October 30, 2018.

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